ODOC: jobs

jobs — Lists the active jobs Summary : jobs is bash build-in command, which is used to list the actives jobs in the current shell. Examples : $ sleep 60 & — Just run this command 5 times. Create dummy active jobs for testing. $ jobs — List all active jobs. $ jobs -l — List all active jobs with pid. $ jobs -p — List only the pid of all active jobs.

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Happy New Year

First a very Happy New Year to all. I must first apologize for not posting regularly. But yesterday I went for a reunion among my old school friends and we had a great party. I think this year onwards I must try to post regularly and also try to write nice articles. I am planning to shift my blog from Blogger to a WordPress one. I must get some money first and try to get some space.

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ODOC: rm

rm — ReMove files or directories. Summary : rm removes each specified file. By default, it does not remove directories. Examples : $ rm myfile — Remove the myfile from current dir. $ rm f1 f2 f3 — Remove f1,f2 and f3. $ rm f? — Remove all files, whose name start with f and followed by single char. $ rm f* — Remove all files, whose name starting with f.

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ODOC: wall

wall — Send a message to everybody’s terminal. Summary : Wall sends a message to everybody logged. The length of the message is limited to 20 lines. You MAY need root permission, on some system, to run this command. This command is used to pass the some critical information to all. Examples : # wall “Welcome” — Send the string “Welcome” to all. # wall Read : man wall

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ODOC: who

who — show WHO is logged on Summary : who prints the info (login name, terminal line, login time, and remote hostname or X display) abt abt each user currently logged on. who uses /var/run/utmp file to know abt the current users. Examples : $ who — Show who are all logged on. $ who -H — Show info with header. $ who -m — only hostname and user associated with stdin.

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ODOC: w

w — show Who is doing What Summary : w is part of the procps package. w shows information about the users currently on the machine, and their processes. The header shows, in this order, the current time, Uptime, no. of current users, & load averages for the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes. JCPU — The time used by all processes attached to the tty. It does not include past background jobs, but does include currently running background jobs.

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ODOC: mount

mount — Mount/Attach a File System to a File Tree. Summary : All files accessible in a Unix system are arranged in one big tree, the file hierarchy, rooted at /. These files can be spread out over several devices. The mount command serves to attach the file system found on some device to the big file tree. Examples : $ mount — List all mounted FSs (FileSystem). $ mount -l — List all mounted FSs with Labels.

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ODOC: sleep/usleep

Sorry I was busy for the two days and couldn’t post here. And my rescheduled exams start from 16th Dec till 27th Dec. sleep/usleep — Sleep for a specified amount of time Summary : Sleep will introduce a delay for a specified seconds (Seconds may be an arbitrary floating point number). usleep sleeps some no of micro-seconds (default is 1). Examples : $ sleep 6 — Sleep for 6 Seconds.

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ODOC: wc

wc – Count & Print the No. of Bytes,Words & Lines in files. Summary : Print byte, word, and newline counts for each FILE, and a total line if more than one FILE is specified. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read stdin. Examples : $ wc — Accept the input from stdio and count $ wc myfile — Print the no .of bytes, words, lines in the file.

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ODOC: tput

tput — Initialize a terminal or query terminfo database Summary : The tput utility uses the terminfo database to make the values of terminal dependent capabilities and information available to the shell to initialize/reset/query the terminal. Examples : $ tput cols — Print the no of cols for the current terminal. $ tput cup 10 5 — Move the CUrsor Position to Row 20 & Col 5. $ tput smso — Starts highlighting

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Freenet – Uncensored file sharing

Freenet is free software which lets you publish and obtain information on the Internet without fear of censorship. To achieve this freedom, the network is entirely decentralized and publishers and consumers of information are anonymous. Without anonymity there can never be true freedom of speech, and without decentralization the network will be vulnerable to attack. All communications by Freenet nodes are encrypted and routed through other nodes that make it difficult to see who is requesting for what content.

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ODOC: cal

cal – Displays a calendar Summary : Cal displays a simple calendar. If arguments are not specified, the current month is displayed. Examples : $ cal — Displays current month $ cal -3 — Display prev & current & next month output. $ cal -y — Display a calendar for the current year $ cal -m — Display Monday as the first day of the week. Sunday is default.

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ODOC: tr

tr – Translate or Delete characters Summary : tr will Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from stdin, writing to stdout. Examples : $ echo “fslog” | tr “fs” “FS” — Translate f to F & s to S. $ echo “fslog” | tr “[a-z]” “[A-Z]” — Change case (lower to upper) $ echo “HelloooOOOoooo” | tr -s ‘[:lower:]’ — Squeez the “lower” case letters. $ echo “FxSyLzoyg” | tr -d xyz — Remove xyz

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ODOC: more

more — File perusal filter for crt viewing Summary : Perusal means the act of reading, especially of reading through or with care. More is a filter for paging through text one screenful at a time. Examples : $ more myfile1 myfile2 — Show myfile 1 & 2 page by page. $ more -10 myfile — Show 10lines/page. $ more -d myfile — Usually more show % of viewed content only at the bottom.

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ODOC: cplit

csplit – Split a file into sections determined by Context Summary : Output pieces of FILE separated by PATTERN(s) to files `xx01′, `xx02′,…, & output byte counts of each piece to standard output. PATTERN(s) are Line Numbers or a Regexp. Examples : $ csplit myfile 10 40 80 — 1st file contains 1-9 lines, 2nd 10-39 , 3rd 40-79 and 4th 80-EOF. $ csplit myfile 10 10 80 — Zero length file will be create for the 2nd parameter.

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ODOC: split

split – Split a file into pieces. Summary : Split is used to split a file into equal no .of lines. The output files are created with the default Prefix as ‘x’ and suffix as 2 digit number. Examples : $ split -l 10 myfile — Split myfile into files of 10 lines. $ split -b 100 myfile — Split myfile into files of 100bytes. $ split -C 25 myfile — Put at most 25bytes of lines per file.

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ODOC: head

head – Output the 1st part of files. Summary : I should have posted this after the tail command, but forgot to do so. It does exactly the opposite by printing the first 10 lines of each FILE to stdout. With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read stdin. Examples : $ head — Read 10 lines from stdin & dump to stdout

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ODOC: shutdown

shutdown — Bring the system down (Needs Root privilege) Summary : shutdown brings the system down in a secure way. All logged-in users are notified that the system is going down, and login is blocked. All processes are first notified that the system is going down by the signal SIGTERM. Runlevel 0 is used to halt the system, runlevel 6 is used to reboot the system. However please take care not to use this command on production systems.

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